Incineration is the process of destroying waste through burning. Because of the variety of substances found in e-waste, incineration can be associated with a major risk of generating and dispersing contaminants and toxic substances. The gases released during the burning and the residue ash are often toxic.

Mechanical processing

Mechanical processing is the first step in e-waste treatment, normally an industrial large scale operation to obtain concentrates of recyclable materials in a dedicated fraction and also to further separate hazardous materials.

Milling operations

The milling operations are a step in the recycle process, subsequent to the incineration process, in which the resulting materials are crushed to a fine powder.


The subsequent step of e-waste recycling is refining. Refining of resources in e-waste is possible and technical solutions exist to get back raw with minimal environmental impact.
Most of the fractions need to be refined or conditioned in order to be sold as secondary raw materials.


The smelting process is used to separate precious metals (PM) and base metals (BM) from inert material residues from the incineration process.

Tbrf - top blown rotary furnace

The TBRF is a pyro-metallurgical furnace which has many applications.